The Formation of the 13 Colonies

Virginia:

In 1606 two private companies were formed to seek a patent for colonization on the Atlantic Coast. In 1607, 105 London company sponsored settlers arrived from England to begin the story that we all remember from our school days.

Massachusetts:

On September 16th, 1620 the ship “Mayflower” set off from Plymouth, England on to it journey to the New world. The compact, which was signed on November 21st, 1620, served as the official Constitution of the Plymouth colony for many years. On the 21st of December they decided on a location near Plymouth harbor which they named Plymouth.

Maine was annexed to the Massachusetts in 1652 and later the Plymouth colony was too. In 1637 colonists, with the cooperation of several local tribes, mounted a devastating attack on a tribe known as the Pequot’s. In 1675, the long accord that had exist between the New England colonists and the local native tribes came apart in a bloody war known as the King Philip war.

New Hampshire:

In 1623, two groups of English settlers, sent by Captain John Mason, arrived in what is now called New Hampshire and established a fishing village near the mouth of the PiscataquaRiver.in 1638, John wheelwright was banished from Boston for defending his sister-in-law, Anne Hutchinson, founded a settlement called Exeter in New Hampshire. In 1639, the settlers signed the “Exeter Compact” patterned after the Mayflower.

Maryland:

In 1632 Charles I granted Maryland Charter to lord Baltimore. In 1633 the first group of settlers set sail for Maryland to establish a colony of freemen led by Leonard Calvert, Cecil Calvert’s younger brother.

Connecticut:

Dutch traders had established a permanent settlement near Hartford as early as 1633. In 1636, after being driven from Massachusetts, clergyman Thomas hooker and his followers arrives in Hartford and declared freedom from all save divine Authority.

Rhode Island:

While scattered Europeans began to settle the area as early as 1620. But the first permanent settlement wasn’t established until 1636. In 1635, roger Williams was driven from Salem, Massachusetts for espousing religious and political freedom.

In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, having been banned from the Massachusetts, helped find Portsmouth, Rhode Island. In 1663, Rhode Island was established as a corporate colony and received a Royal “Charter of Rhode Island and Province Plantations”.

Delaware:

In 1631, the first settlement was attempted in Delaware by Dutch traders led by captain David Pietersen de Vries. In 1632, the party had been killed in a dispute with the local natives. In 1638, peter Minuet, now in the service of the Swedish, led a group of Swedish settlers to the Delaware River area under a grant from the New Sweden Company.

In 1655, the Dutch gained control of the land from the Swedish. In 1664, the English obtained Delaware after defeating the Dutch. The Dutch regained Delaware in 1673, but lost it to the English in 1674. In 1682 Delaware was given to William Penn, but that didn’t last long, and Delaware became independent after that.

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