Plymouth Colony

It all started after the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England. King James was the ruler after the death of Elizabeth I. King James was a Catholic, and the Pilgrims had to flee to a different island for religious freedom.

The Speedwell had been leaking on her voyage from the Netherlands to England, though, so they spent the next week patching her up. On the 5th of August, 1619, the two ships finally set sail for America.  But the Speedwell began leaking again, so they pulled into the town of Dartmouth for repairs, arriving there about August 12th.

The Speedwell was patched up again, and the two ships again set sail for America about August 21.  After the two ships had sailed about 300 miles out to sea, the Speedwell again began to leak.  Frustrated with the enormous amount money and of time lost, and their inability to fix the Speedwell so that it could be sea-worthy, they returned to Plymouth, England, and made the decision to leave the Speedwell behind.

The Mayflower would go to America alone.  The cargo on the Speedwell was transferred over to the Mayflower; some of the passengers were so tired and disappointed with all the problems that they quit and went home, while others decide to make the Mayflower even more crowded. Some of the families where separated.

On the 9th of November in 1620, the Mayflower landed on the Cape Cod. Here half of the Pilgrims survived the first winter. The Pilgrims were busy trying to farm but could not farm in the rock hard soil.

Then one day an Indian named Samoset warmly greeted them. A few days later the Indians and the Pilgrims met. An Indian named Squanto, and Samoset decided to help the Pilgrims farm. A few months later, a year after their arrival, the Pilgrims decided to have a feast with the Indians.

The Pilgrims did not know how much food they needed to prepare for the families of the Indians for 3 days. When Massasoit, chief of the Indians, came and saw how much food there was. Within an hour his men came back with about 3 times the amount the Pilgrims had made. This was the first Thanksgiving.

Years passed, the friendship broke, children from playing together, to killing each other, etc. and the peace became war.

About Half or more comes from, mayflowerhistory.com/voyage/, not completely in my own words.

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Steps to a Swimming Rescue

  1. Assessment: if swimming rescue is necessary.
  2. Equipment: find a rescue aid or floatation device (PFD).
  3. Entry: based on the topography; diving is not recommended.
  4. Approach: keep eyes on the victim.
  5. Ready Position: stop to reevaluate when 6-10 feet away.
  6. Assist: determine how to rescue.
  7. Landing: direct or assist victim.
  8. After Care: verify that emergency services have been activated; CPR (if needed).

Steps 1, 2, and 5

Planning: Quickly assess the situation – time is short.

  1. Has anyone called for help?
  2. Is anyone attempting a swimming rescue?
  3. Is it possible to wade out unconscious victim?
  4. Are any rescue aids available (nearby)?
  5. Does the victim have any injuries?

Steps 3 & 4

Entry and Approach: Same as non-conscious rescue entries and approaches.

  1. Entry is based on the terrain.
  2. Approach is based on the distance.
  3. Verify victim is unconscious by splashing water on the victim.\

Step 5

Assist:

  1. Armpit tow: rear approach.
  2. Wrist tow: front approach.
  3. Cross-chest tow: victim is struggling to breathe in air.

Step 7

Landing:

  1. Beach drag- water supports victim’s weight: arms under victim’s armpit.
  2. Vertical lift- best if two people are on shore or deck.

Step 8

After Care:

  1. Make sure emergencies have been called.
  2. Check vertical signs.
  3. Preform CPR (if needed).
  4. Place victim in recovery position if victim gains conscience.
  5. Wait for emergencies personnel.

Volcanoes

Earth’s volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter and softer layer in its mantle. On Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together.

Some volcanoes are on or are Islands the size of a small island like Hawaii. Erupting volcanoes can pose many different hazards especially aircrafts in air. “Hotspots” is the name given to volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.

There are different types of volcanoes like the “shield volcano” in a shape of an elongated mountain, “volcanic cones” in the shape of a cone, “Mud volcanoes” can run 10 km in diameter and reach 700 meters high, and a “Super volcano” which is in a shape of a caldron, some volcanoes even have two heads (one head is a lot smaller than the larger head).

Dead volcanoes use to have lava/ magma until it became extinct. Active volcanoes are the volcanoes with lava/ magma. Another way of classifying volcanoes is by the composition of material erupted, since this affects the shape of the volcano. Lava can be broadly classified into 4 different compositions.

  • If the eruptedmagma contains a high percentage (>63%) of silica, the lava is called Felsic.
  • If the erupted magma contains 52–63% silica, the lava is ofintermediate
  • If the erupted magma contains <52% and >45% silica, the lava is called Mafic.
  • Some erupted magmas contain <=45% silica and produce Ultramafic lava. Ultramafic flows, also known as komatiites, are very rare; indeed, very few have been erupted at the Earth’s surface since the Proterozoic, when the planet’s heat flow was higher. They are (or were) the hottest lavas on Earth that probably had more fluid than any common Mafic lavas.

There are two types of lava according to the lava surface and they are both Hawaiian words. The first one is called A’a and the second Pāhoehoe.

  1. ‘Aʻa is characterized by a rough and chunky surface and is the typical texture of viscous lava flows.
  2. Pāhoehoe is characterized by its smooth and often ropey or wrinkly surface and is generally formed from more fluid lava flows.

In Chapters XV and XLII (15 and 42) in the book called “The Journey to the Center of the Earth” is about three people inside two different volcanoes (not at the same time).

In chapter XV Professor Hardwigg, his nephew Henry/Harry, and the eider-hunter Hans enter a dead volcano, which was very cold and dark, in Iceland. From chapters XVI-XLI they are in the dead volcano (in Iceland) that had many long tunnels that are not man-made but nature-made that were heading down to the center of the Earth. The Professor, Harry, and Hans people spend more than a month in these tunnels heading down to the center of the Earth.

They even spend about a week or more descending a set of stairs, which took them to a large grotto. One of them, somehow, got separated from the group for about three days. When Professor and Hans found Harry he was unconscious, and when Harry regained his conscience he is in a bright and airy cave that led to, what appears to be a, dinosaur world that was in the Earth/ under the Earth’s crust.

Then they spend a few weeks in that world, and then they decide to blow up a little cave that causes an Earth\quake. That sends them up a shaft at 1+ league(s) per day for about 3 days, leaving them with no food, water, and equipment.

In chapter XLI they figure out that the shaft led to inside a volcano. The volcano was an active volcano that was about to erupt. The climate in this active volcano was very hot and humid. A few minutes later the volcano erupted and it sent the Professor, Henry, and Hans out of it into the open air of Stromboli.

Mary I of England aka Bloody Mary

Mary I of England, also known as Bloody Mary, was born on the 18th of February in 1516. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon, who survived to adulthood. Mary’s father Henry VIII banished his wife for not baring him a son, not to long afterwards.

Henry VIII’s next wife who was Anne Boleyn also bore him a daughter named Elizabeth, then was banished or killed. His third wife who was Jane Seymour finally bore him a son, but died only a few hours after giving birth. Henry VIII married three more women who were Anne Cleves, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr. Anne Cleves committed adultery and got executed, Catherine Howard went against him and got executed, and Catherine Parr got widowed after the death of Henry VIII

When Henry VIII died on the 28th of January in 1547, his son Edward VI took over the throne, instead of Mary, in 1547. Edward VI was at the age of nine when he became King of England, but ruled with a counsel organized by his father. Edward, unlike his half-sister Mary who was a Catholic, was a Protestant like his father who taught him the Protestant religion.

By the time he was at the age of eighteen he died and leaving the throne to his cousin, Lady Jane Grey when she was about sixteen. Nine days later Lady Jane Grey got beheaded with her young husband for treason. Having been over throne by Mary I, of England, Mary I took over the throne and killing many Protestants, because she was a Catholic, and burning 280 at the stake for four out of the five years of her reign, earning the nick-name Bloody Mary.

Mary had been raised in France when her mother was banned. She married to Phillip II of Spain in September 1553, hoping to have to produce a child as, instead of her half-sister Elizabeth I taking over the throne. Marry never bore a child, but had about 3 false alarms of pregnancy. Mary I died on the 17th of November in 1558, Elizabeth I took over the throne in that same year after the death of her half-sister.

Book Report #2

Volcanoes:

Earth’s volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter and softer layer in its mantle. On Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together.

Some volcanoes are on or are Islands the size of a small island like Hawaii. Erupting volcanoes can pose many different hazards especially aircrafts in air. “Hotspots” is the name given to volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.

There are different types of volcanoes like the “shield volcano” in a shape of an elongated mountain, “volcanic cones” in the shape of a cone, “Mud volcanoes” can run 10 km in diameter and reach 700 meters high, and a “Super volcano” which is in a shape of a caldron, some volcanoes even have two heads (one head is a lot smaller than the larger head).

Dead volcanoes use to have lava/ magma until it became extinct. Active volcanoes are the volcanoes with lava/ magma. Another way of classifying volcanoes is by the composition of material erupted, since this affects the shape of the volcano. Lava can be broadly classified into 4 different compositions.

  • If the eruptedmagma contains a high percentage (>63%) of silica, the lava is called Felsic.
  • If the erupted magma contains 52–63% silica, the lava is ofintermediate
  • If the erupted magma contains <52% and >45% silica, the lava is called Mafic.
  • Some erupted magmas contain <=45% silica and produce Ultramafic lava. Ultramafic flows, also known as komatiites, are very rare; indeed, very few have been erupted at the Earth’s surface since the Proterozoic, when the planet’s heat flow was higher. They are (or were) the hottest lavas on Earth that probably had more fluid than any common Mafic lavas.

 

There are two types of lava according to the lava surface and they are both Hawaiian words. The first one is called A’a and the second Pāhoehoe.

  1. ‘Aʻa is characterized by a rough and chunky surface and is the typical texture of viscous lava flows.
  2. Pāhoehoe is characterized by its smooth and often ropey or wrinkly surface and is generally formed from more fluid lava flows.

In Chapters XV and XLII (15 and 42) in the book called “The Journey to the Center of the Earth” is about three people inside two different volcanoes (not at the same time).

In chapter XV Professor Hardwigg, his nephew Henry/Harry, and the eider-hunter Hans enter a dead volcano, which was very cold and dark, in Iceland. From chapters XVI-XLI they are in the dead volcano (in Iceland) that had many long tunnels that are not man-made but nature-made that were heading down to the center of the Earth. The Professor, Harry, and Hans people spend more than a month in these tunnels heading down to the center of the Earth.

They even spend about a week or more descending a set of stairs, which took them to a large grotto. One of them, somehow, got separated from the group for about three days. When Professor and Hans found Harry he was unconscious, and when Harry regained his conscience he is in a bright and airy cave that led to, what appears to be a, dinosaur world that was in the Earth/ under the Earth’s crust.

Then they spend a few weeks in that world, and then they decide to blow up a little cave that causes an Earth\quake. That sends them up a shaft at 1+ league(s) per day for about 3 days, leaving them with no food, water, and equipment.

In chapter XLI they figure out that the shaft led to inside a volcano. The volcano was an active volcano that was about to erupt. The climate in this active volcano was very hot and humid. A few minutes later the volcano erupted and it sent the Professor, Henry, and Hans out of it into the open air of Stromboli.

William Tyndale

William Tyndale was born at some time in the period 1484–96, in Melksham Court, Stinchcombe, a village near Dursley, Gloucestershire. William Tyndale spoke and was an English, Greek, Latin, German, Italian, Spanish and Hebrew scholar at the Oxford University.

In 1506 William Tyndale began a Bachelor of Arts degree at Magdalen Hall of Oxford University. In 1512 he received his B.A (Bachelor of Arts) and in that same year he became a sub deacon. In July 1515 he was made a Master of Arts.

Between 1517 and 1521, William went to the University of Cambridge. From August 1511 to January 1512 Erasmus had been the leading teacher of Greek. In 1521 William became a captain at the home of Sir John Walsh.

William left for London to get permission to translate the bible into English, but he did not get permission to. In the spring of 1524, William left England and landed at Hamburg. In 1526 the full edition of the New Testament was complete.

Around 1529, Tyndale intended to move to Hamburg, to carrying on his work. He revised his translation of the New Testament and began translating the Old Testament and writing various treatises. In 1530, he wrote The Practyse of Prelates.

The king of England’s wrath was aimed at Tyndale. Henry asked the Emperor Charles V to have the writer apprehended and returned to England under the terms of the Treaty of Cambrai; however, the Emperor responded that formal evidence was required before extradition

In 1535 Henry Phillips betrayed William Tyndale. In 1536 William Tyndale was condemned to be burnt to death. William Tyndale died in the year of 1563. His last words before he died were “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes”.

Within four years after the death of William, the same king’s eyes were opened and four English translations of the Bible were published in England, including Henry’s official Great Bible. All these people got the idea from William Tyndale’s work.

Martin Luter

Martin Luther was born on the 10th of November, 1483 in Eisleben, Saxony. He was baptized as a Catholic the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours. His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council.

In 1501, at the age of 19, he entered the University of Erfurt. In 1505 Martin received his master’s degree. On the 2nd of July in 1505, he was returning to university on horseback after a trip home.

During a thunderstorm, a lightning bolt struck near him, terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, “Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!” After that he left law school, sold his books, and entered a closed Augustinian friary in Erfurt on the 17th of July in 1505. Martin dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayerpilgrimage, and frequent confession.

Martin described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair. In 1508, von Staupitz, first dean of the newly founded University of Wittenberg, sent for Luther, to teach theology. Martin received a Bachelor’s degree in Biblical studies on the 9th of March 1508.

A year later he received another Bachelor’s degree but in the Sentences by Peter Lombard.  On the19th of October in 1512, he was awarded as a Doctor in Theology. On the 21st October 1512, he received into the senate of the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg, having been called to the position as a Doctor in Bible.

He spent the rest of his career in this position at the University of Wittenberg. From 1510 to 1520, Martin Luther lectured on the Psalms, the book of Hebrews, Romans, and Galatians. As he studied these portions of the Bible, he came to realize that the Catholic Church had some truths and others all wrong, so he wrote 95 theses within 60 days to the Catholic Church.

It was conducted from the 28th of January to 25th of May in 1521, with Emperor Charles V presiding. Prince Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, obtained a safe conduct for Martin Luther to and from the meeting. On the 18th of February in 1536, Martin Luther died still convinced of the correctness of his Reformation theology, and with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective.

He died at the age of 52