Universities and Scholasticism

The university system began to develop in the later part of the 12th century. That system grew stronger throughout the 13th century. The most common universities way back in the late 12th-14th centuries were in Paris. It was Pope Gregory IX who granted the universities in Paris the need to govern itself and dictate the subject manner that was taught. It is thus important to acknowledge that the church was the back bone of the universities back then from the late 12th-14th centuries.

The teachers used to view points; Philological and Dominican orders. The Philological order was led by Saint Augustine. And the Dominican order was led by Thomas Aquinas. The notable people that in influenced scholasticism were: Thomas Aquinas, Peter Abelard, Anselm, and William Bonaventure.

The systematization of the scholastic studies of the following elements: Lectio, Meditatio, and Quaestio. Lectio- a passage read aloud to the class by the teacher. Meditatio- time for reflection on the daily reading. And Quaestio- time when questions and debates were held between the students and the teacher.

There were two Analysis’s; Philological and Logical analysis. Philological studied the meanings of the words used. And Logical analysis attempted to remove the contradictions.

Other renowned figures of this epoch include but are not limited to St. Anslem, Albert Magnus, Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus and Wm of Ockham. St. Anslem is remembered for his ontological argument for the proof of the existing god. Bonaventure brings memory some subtle opposition to Aquinas especially on the role of reason in theologizing. He never revisited Augustine method appealing to illumination and mysticism over the Aristotelian inquiry which was a thomistic tool.

One of the biggest gifts to humanity for many centuries from the beginning when it started about 19 centuries is Universities.

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