Search and Rescue

Urban Search and rescue (US&R) is an organization that goes and SAR those who are trap in a collapsed buildings. This organization has at least seventy members who do SAR work 24 hours a day for only 10 days in one disaster. They not only SAR but they also rebuild some of the building so that it would not keep collapsing. Instead of all seventy members awake all the time doing SAR work, half do 12 hours and when those 12 hours are up the next half does SAR work for 12 hours.

Air Force Rescue Coordination Center goes and SAR’s not in or on buildings, but in the Mountains, forests, and seas. The AFRCC operates twenty-four seven (24 hours a day, 7 days a week). The center directly ties into the Federal Aviation’s alerting system.

Specialized SAR Team goes and SAR on fishing and game areas. Fish and Game’s Specialized SAR Team is part of the Department’s law Enforcement Division. The team consists of 16 specially trained and skilled Conservation Officers who respond to numerous diverse calls for SAR assistance throughout the state. The New Hampshire Fish and Game Department conducts an average of 145 search and rescue missions annually for victims ranging from hikers, climbers, OHRV operators, children, elderly persons (Alzheimer’s and dementia patients) and subjects of suicide. Fish and Game is assisted in its search and rescue missions by many professional volunteer search and rescue organizations throughout the state. We are greatly appreciative of these considerable efforts.

About 20 million people were saved by the SAR.


The Black Death

The Black Death                          2015, 1, 9

The Black Death was a very deadly and painful disease back from the early 1340’s- late 1350’s. This disease was caused by bite of an infected flea, or a disease brown rat. The signs of the Black Death are boils, fevers, chills, diarrhea, vomiting, etc… This disease was so deadly that some people went to bed perfectly healthy and were dead in the morning. Some of the Englishmen believed that it was a punishment from god, and then some went to whip themselves publicly.

Nearly over 20 million, that was 1/3 of England’s population at that time, of these Englishmen died from the plague. The reason why so many died from this plague during the war against France is because that they did not have knowledge of germs and diseases. So the doctors wore a metal mask with a metal beak with herbs inside, dressed in black from head to toe, and they had a stick so that they did not touch the sick people, with their hands but with the stick, who have the Black Death.

Not only were the poor sick people who greatly affected by the Black Death, but so were those who were higher in rank. No person was to go near those who had the disease, not even the doctors. The reason why no one was supposed to be near the sick was because the Black Death was highly contagious, and can spread very easily. After a person got the boils, the boils start to turn black then the blackness spreads.

It would have been harder to spot the black death on black people who were not put away who had there boils already turned black, because if the boils turn black witch camouflages with the black skin color. It was a lot easier to spot the Black Death on the white people because the black spots do not camouflage with the skin color. Although the English had the Black Death kill 1\3 of their population, they still won many battles against the French.

This highly contagious disease started on some of the ships that were sailing from England to France, when some of the people started to get signs of this disease, and some even died about 1/3 – 3/4 of the way there. Some were even sick by the time they were on land and gave the disease to someone else and died not long after they gave it to some others. Some people even got this disease from the dead.

The healthy people kept flowers under their noses so that they did not have to smell death. The nursery rhyme “Ring around a Rosie” is about the Black Death. Some people sing it like this “a ring around the Rosie a top full of posies A-tissue, a-tissue we all fall down.” an some sing the true version “A ring around the Rosie a pocket full of posies ashes, ashes we all fall down.”

“A ring around the Rosie”, is about the plague. “A pocket full of posies”, is about the flowers always under the nose of those who do not want or like the smell of death. “A-tissue, a-tissue” or “ashes, ashes”, is all about the sneezing. “And we all fall down”, is death.

Justinian and Byzantium

Justinian started as a farm boy, but when at the age of 16 he walked to his uncle Justin who was in Constantinople, at the time Justin was the Roman guard leader. His uncle received Justinian, and gave him good education. Justinian was an energetic man who surrounded himself with both males and females.

Justin became the emperor after the previous emperor named Emperor Anastasius, and Justinian became co-emperor before Justin died, and then became emperor after his uncle’s death. Justinian was the greatest ruler of Eastern Rome, and he reigned from 527-565 A.D. The Byzantium controlled Greece, Asia Minor, Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey.

The law that Justinian made was called the Code of Justinian. The first attack on Constantinople was by the Arabs. The Arabs had burnt down most of the city and killed 30,000 people. Justinian had rebuilt the damage the attackers did.

Justinian had expanded Rome until the emperors after him had to retreat because Rome was so big that the military was too thinly spread through the country (ies). The capital city of Rome was Rome until Justinian moved it to Constantinople. Justinian married his mistress Theodora who was 20 years older than him and in a different class than him, in Constantinople

Justinian had executed the Emperor Anastasius nephews because they tried to kill him. After the loss of Italy it cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold. After the loss of Africa it cost the empire about 100,000 pounds of gold. It cost the empire about 11,000 pounds of gold. After the eternal peace was broken, and Justinian was forced to pay 5,000 pounds of gold plus 500 pounds more each year.

The Persians agreed to abandon Lazica in exchange for an annual tribute of 400 or 500 pounds of gold to be paid by the Romans. Justinian almost lost his ruling Eastern Rome in the Nika Riots. Justinian got to outlive his wife by 20 years.

Justinian died at the age of 83 in the year of 565 A.D. And the emperor after him was Herlius. Constantinople lasted for 1,000 years after him. Justinian was such a good ruler he became known as “Justinian the Great” and the “emperor who never sleeps” because of the accounts of his work habits. The Byzantium was the “dynasty” in Rome at that time. During the 6 and 7th century the Empire was struck by a series of epidemics eventually devastating the population and contributed decline and a weakening the empire.

Justin II was the son of his sister of Justinian named Vigilantia. Justin II was Justinian’s successor, and refused to pay the large tribute to the Persians after the death of his Uncle Justinian. On the second attack the Arabs, Persians, Burgundy’s, and slaves attacked Constantinople were driven away by Greek fire.

The technique that was used to defend Constantinople is no longer known today; and how Greek fire was created. Rome shrank so much after Justain’s reign it was about a quarter of its usual size about a few centuries later.

Robert Bruce

The most famous king of all of Scotland was Robert Bruce. He lived from the reign of Edward I-III. Edward I, II, and III were all kings’ of both England and Scotland. During the reign of Edward I the Scotland King died and thirteen men claimed the throne.

Edward I wanted to rule over Scotland so he raised an army with the French, but the French had refused so Edwards’s army marched into Scotland and took the Pope. Because Edward was determined that Scotland should have no more kings’ that we Scottish. Then he took the crowning/sacred stone on which the Scotland Kings had to sit on in order to be crowned king.

Sometime early in Edward I’s reign of Scotland, a Scottish army was raise against him. The army was led by a knight named William Wallace. The king led an army to defeat this small Scottish army. The Scottish army was defeated and the leader William Wallace barely escaped with his life, and sometime after that he was brutally torn to pieces. His limbs torn off, while he was alive and then hung as a warning to all Scottish citizens.

But cruelly killing someone did not stop them from trying to fight for their freedom. The next two leaders who led an attack against the king were Robert Bruce and John Comyn. After the great victory Robert was privately crowned king of Scotland.

When Edward II became king he gave little attention to the Scottish, and that gave Robert the chance to capture some castles from the king. When King Edward II came back from England he was met at Bannockburn by a Scottish army. Edward II still wanted Scotland, but his son Edward III recognized the independence of Scotland and acknowledge Robert Bruce as their true king.

The Scottish fought for about 2 generations for their freedom, and on the 3 generation they received their freedom because of the good King Edward III.

It is said that when Robert, while hiding from the king, was busy sitting in his hut when he saw a spider try to throw some web to a pole and failed 5 times. Ant that is how many times Robert tried and failed all 5 times. On the 6th throw the spider successes. So Robert learnt a lesson from that spider to never stop trying. And that is what exactly what happened, Robert never stopped trying to free the Scottish.

Universities and Scholasticism

The university system began to develop in the later part of the 12th century. That system grew stronger throughout the 13th century. The most common universities way back in the late 12th-14th centuries were in Paris. It was Pope Gregory IX who granted the universities in Paris the need to govern itself and dictate the subject manner that was taught. It is thus important to acknowledge that the church was the back bone of the universities back then from the late 12th-14th centuries.

The teachers used to view points; Philological and Dominican orders. The Philological order was led by Saint Augustine. And the Dominican order was led by Thomas Aquinas. The notable people that in influenced scholasticism were: Thomas Aquinas, Peter Abelard, Anselm, and William Bonaventure.

The systematization of the scholastic studies of the following elements: Lectio, Meditatio, and Quaestio. Lectio- a passage read aloud to the class by the teacher. Meditatio- time for reflection on the daily reading. And Quaestio- time when questions and debates were held between the students and the teacher.

There were two Analysis’s; Philological and Logical analysis. Philological studied the meanings of the words used. And Logical analysis attempted to remove the contradictions.

Other renowned figures of this epoch include but are not limited to St. Anslem, Albert Magnus, Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus and Wm of Ockham. St. Anslem is remembered for his ontological argument for the proof of the existing god. Bonaventure brings memory some subtle opposition to Aquinas especially on the role of reason in theologizing. He never revisited Augustine method appealing to illumination and mysticism over the Aristotelian inquiry which was a thomistic tool.

One of the biggest gifts to humanity for many centuries from the beginning when it started about 19 centuries is Universities.

Marco Polo

Marco Polo was born to a wealthy merchant. At the age of 17 he accompanied his father and uncle on a journey through the holy land, Persia, and Tartary. It took the three travelers three years to reach the empire of china. The emperor of china at that time was Kublai Khan.

The three travelers were warmly welcomed into the palace of the ruler of china. They stayed there for years and became members of the court. Marco, his farther, and his uncle learnt how to speak Chinese when they became members of the court to china.

At the age of 21 Marco was sent on important business to a distant part of china. Finally after some years staying in china, Marco’s farther and uncle decided to return to Venice. Kublai khan did not let them leave his empire at first, but sometime after that, they had to accompany a princess to Persia to be wedded, in order for the Polo’s to leave the Chinese empire.

So the Polo’s accompanied the princess on the two year journey to Persia. They stayed in Persia for another two years. Then they left to go to Venice after they had stayed in Persia for two years. When they had arrived in Venice they had been gone for 24 years, and Marco grew from a teenager to an adult.

Not long after they had settled in, Marco was called to be a captain of a galley. Not long after that Marco was captured and imprisoned. While in prison for two years he told stories of his adventures to his fellow prison mates. His book was published when he got out of prison, and it was translated into many languages all over the world.

Some people who had read his, Marco polo’s, book believe that his stories are true while others believe that he copied or took some other people’s adventures and put it into one book. It is said that the famous America finder, Christopher Columbus, took a copy of Macro polo’s book on his voyage from Spain to America. Some people nicknamed Marco Polo’s book “the Million Lies” because they did not believe that they were true.

It is also said that it was the book from Marco polo that it both encourage and inspired Christopher Columbus to venture another rout that is cheaper to go and get whatever Spain needed or wanted at that time.

Magna Carta

Generations of the Englishmen would celebrate the Magna Carta as a symbol of freedom, after the king that was after John I. Before the king became king when Robin Hood was alive, the king was Richard I also called the Lionheart, was a brother of that harsh and very cruel John I. When Richard I was king his youngest brother was trying to take over the throne, many times before he, Richard I, died.

After the death of Richard I, John I took over the throne after he gained power over his nephew Arthur in 1199. As soon as John I gained the throne he immediately angered the people with his cruelty. John I started to go poor, when he raised the taxes without his barons’ permission.

The Pope at that time did not allow John I into the church and even threatened to close all the churches until he, John I, changed his mind about the king appointing his own archbishops. So John I changed his mind but not his cruelty. After he raised the taxes, to protect himself without his barons’ permission to raise the taxes, they started to go against him.

In 1215 civil war broke out, and the rebels– led by one of his baron’s, John’s longtime anniversary — gained control of London. John yielded, and on June 15, 1215, at Runnymede he accepted terms included in a document called the Articles of the Barons. Four days later the king and the barons issued a formal version of the document, which would be known as the Magna Carta.

After John I’s death in 1216, his nine year old son, Henry III, reissued the Magna Carta. The document was reissued again in 1217and again in 1225. Each subsequently issued of the Magna Carta followed that “final” 1225. In the 17th century, however, two defining acts of English legislation– the Petition of Right and habeas Corpus Act–referred to Clause 39, with states that “no free man shall be… imprisoned or disseised [dispossessed]… except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land” Clause 40 also had dramatic implications for future legal systems in Britain and America.

In 1776, rebellious American colonists looked to the Magna Carta as a model for their demands of liberty from the English crown. Its legacy is especially evident in the Bill rights and the U.S. constitution, and nowhere more so than in the 5th Amendment, which echoes Clause 39. So after Richard I the next two kings, who was his youngest brother John I and his, John I, son Henry III, were very cruel kings, but after them were all good kings until the next cruel king.